The common organization of the amygdaloid complex in tetrapods: The sections were analyzed with a Zeiss fluorescence microscope with appropriate filter combinations. After rinsing the sections were mounted on glass slides and coverslipped with Vectashield Vector, Burlingame, CA. Using time-lapse video microscopy to visualize the complex migration behavior of interneurons it was possible to analyze the dynamic of individual migrating cells on a two-dimensional substrate. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 DISC1 was originally discovered in a Scottish family in which a chromosomal translocation breaks this gene.

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Considering that for technical reasons we could only analyze cells that were able to leave the MGE after transfection, the migration abnormalities caused by DISC1 deficiency might be even more pronounced than described here.

The pallium of anuran amphibians. The boundaries between the lateral pallium and the ventrally located striatum are particularly unclear and only at caudal levels a cell prominence lateral cell prominence; lcp marks their borders. Login Register Login using.

We will be provided with an authorization token please note: Reduction of DISC1 led neither to an increase nor a decrease of tubulin on the protein level nl2001a those cells Figure 7A. Evolution of the amygdaloid complex in vertebrates, with special reference to the anamnio-amniotic transition.

Experiments using localized application of F-actin stabilizing and destabilizing agents revealed the necessity of actin dynamics especially within the growth cone-like structure at the leading process tip. More than a decade after the first description of DISC1 as a susceptibility gene for ul2001a psychiatric disorders, multiple studies attempted to trace its potential functions during brain development.


Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 interactome: Regionalization of the telencephalon in urodele amphibians and its bearing on the identification of the amygdaloid complex.

In their leading process tips DISC1 deficient cells displayed a weaker phalloidin, pAkt, and pGirdin, but not actin signal. Login Register Login using.

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Tangentially migrating neurons assemble a primary cilium that promotes their reorientation to the cortical plate. At rostral levels, Nkx2. Cells with reduced expression levels of DISC1 displayed the same microtubule behavior and EB3 dynamics as control cells indicating no effect on polymerization and depolymerization of microtubule fibers. It has jll2001a demonstrated that severing the tip of the leading process or restricting its dynamics stopped soma translocation He et al.

Thus, the amygdaloid xamera of all tetrapods would share four basic features: Disregulated RhoGTPases and actin cytoskeleton contribute to the migration defect in Lis1-deficient neurons.

Expression pattern of the homeobox protein NKX in the developing Xenopus forebrain. For immunostaining following antibodies have been used: Evolution of the amygdala in vertebrates.

However, according to Kim et al. After phosphorylation by Akt it detaches from the cell membrane and cross-links newly built actin filaments Enomoto et al.

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For this phalloidin staining of interneurons migrating in a 3D substrate of plasma was used to label filamentous F -actin in combination with DISC1 immunostainings using an antibody raised against a peptide mapping near the N-terminus of the DISC1 protein. The truncated jl22001a of DISC1 that was found in a Scottish pedigree has been described as dominant negative Kamiya et al. Immunohistochemical procedures were carried out as follows: Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development.


Several previous studies indicate a vamera role of actin dynamics during soma translocation. Therefore, the multiple approach used in this study by means of immunohistochemical and tract-tracing techniques seems necessary to establish more precise regionalization of the telencephalon that allows the comparison with their counterparts in other tetrapods.

For this we performed in utero electroporations and used constructs that either reduce endogenous DISC1 levels or that express a truncated murine form of DISC1 in combination with a vector that pd only expressed in MGE-derived neurons. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login lc the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button.

As jl2001s in Figure 3Btwo soma translocations occurred within the 40 min recording period. Thus, stable microtubule bundles are no longer reaching into the growth cone-like structure in DISC1 deficient cortical interneurons.

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This as well as the observed alterations of the leading process morphology Figure 2Steinecke et al. Dynamic localization of G-actin during membrane protrusion in neuronal motility. C Analysis of somal translocations per cell in 40 min resulted in a decreased number of translocation in DISC1 deficient cells compared to control cells.